There are a number of diseases which cause children to display some of the symptoms of autism.
|Heller’s DiseaseNormal development to age 3 or 4, then abrupt onset of fretfulness, negativism and anxiety. Regression of mental development and gradual loss of speech.
LKS “Landau-Kleffner Syndrome”
Also Acquired Childhood Epileptic Aphasia. Very rare disorder. Typical profile: normal development and age appropriate language first 3-7 years; Loss of receptive language while retaining some expressive language; “Telegraphic” speech–few verbs; Suspicion of deafness; Child frustrated, puzzled by change in himself; Autistic-like behaviors; normal or above normal non-verbal IQ score; abnormal EEG, with or without seizures. Some practitioners suspect that some cases of Childhood Disintegrative Disorder or “late outset” autism may be Landau-Kleffner Syndrome.
a neurological disorder that occurs only in girls. Unlike autism, girls initially show normal development, then revert. The initial symptoms include some that are associated with autism.
From DSM IV:
(2) apparently normal psychomotor develop (3) normal head circumference at birth
B. Onset of all of the following after a period of normal development:
(1) deceleration of head growth between ages 5 and 48 months
(2) loss of previously acquired purposeful hand skills between ages 5 and 30 months with subsequent development of stereotyped hand movements (e.g. hand wringing or hand washing)
(3) loss of social engagment early in the course (although social interaction often develops later)
(4) appearance of poorly coordinated gait or trunk movements
(5) severely impaired expressive and receptive language
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
From DSM IV:
DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR CHILDHOOD DISINTEGRATIVE DISORDER
A. Apparently normal development for at least the first 2 years
B. Clinically significant loss of previously acquired skills
(1) expressive or receptive language (2) social skills or adaptive behavior (3) bowel or bladder control (4) play (5) motor skills
C. Abnormalities of functioning in at least two of the following areas:
(1) qualitative impairment in social interaction (e.g., impairment in nonverbal behaviors, failure to develop peer relationships, lack of social or emotional reciprocity)
2) qualitative impairments in communication (e.g., delay or lack of the development of spoken language, inability to initiate or sustain a conversation, stereotyped and repetitive use of language, lack of verbal make-believe play)
(3) Restricted repetitive & stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests and activities, including motor stereotypes and mannerisms.
D. The disturbance is not better accounted for by another specific Pervasive Developmental Disorder or by Schizophrenia.
Cocktail party speech syndrome
(1) A perseveration of response, either echoing the examiner, or repetition of an earlier statement made by the child.
A. Qualitative impairment in social interaction, as manifested by at least two of the following:
(1) marked impairments in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye gaze, facial expression, body postures, and gestures to regulate social interaction
(2) failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to
(3) a lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests, or achievements with other people (e.g. by a lack of showing, bringing, or pointing out objects of interest to other people)
(4) lack of social or emotional reciprocity
B. Restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities, as manifested by at least one of the following:
(1) encompassing preoccupation with one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that is abnormal either in intensity or focus
(2) apparently inflexible adherence to specific, nonfunctional routines or rituals
(3) stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms (e.g., hand or finger flapping or twisting, or complex whole-body movements)
(4) persistent preoccupation with parts of objects
C. The disturbance causes clinically significant impairments in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning
D. There is no clinically significant general delay in language (e.g., single words used by age 2 years, communicative phrases used by age 3 years)
E. There is no clinically significant delay in cognitive
F. Criteria are not met for another specific Pervasive
Semantic-pragmatic speech disorder
ADD and ADHD “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder”
DAS “Developmental Apraxia of Speech”
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